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Bergonian Climate and Weather


Topics on this page:

-Precipitation Patterns

-The Seasons in Bergonia

-The 21 Specific Climate Zones

Also see:

-Vegetation,  -Fauna,  -The Land

The Major Weather Influences

Moist winds & low pressure systems come from the west, especially in winter, bringing cool, moist air to Berg's northwestern half.

The Azores subtropical high pressure system in the east, strongest in summer.

Big variations in topography & altitude produce big variations in local climate.

The Climate in a Nutshell

A split between subtropical climate (south, east & lowlands) and temperate (north and highlands).

Moist in the west and north.  Semi-arid in the south and east.

The summers are hot in the lower elevations all throughout Bergonia.  The summers can be mild and balmy in the central plateau and the other highlands.

Mild winters in the lowlands.  Winters are typically cool and wet in the uplands & central plateau, and  in some years can be very cold.  The northern mountains and much of the central plateau see frost, snow and ice, though usually light, every year.

Because of the highly varied topography, there are many local variations in weather and climate.  Dense subtropical forest can exist within ten or twenty miles of semi-arid scrubland.


January mean daily highs:

Over 75º F:  Incuatati, Soleinia, and southern Amota, as in Cuba, extreme southern Florida, Senegal. (A climates)

60-75º F:  Paietri, Sanraniclai, Halemarec, southeastern Persian, as in Central Florida and Spanish Sahara. (A climates)

40-60º F:   North Bergonian coast, Ifuno Plateau, as in Georgia, South Carolina, Morocco & Spain.  (C climates)

Under 50º F:  The high hills & mountains.

July mean daily highs:

Over 80º F :  All southern Bergonia, Amota, and the western lowlands, as in Florida, South Carolina.

Under 80º F:  Northern Bergonia, the Ifuno plateau and the mountains, as in Spain, and Morocco.  


To the south of the mid-Atlantic high pressure system is a great dryness, associated with the Sahara.  This dryness usually extends to cover the southeastern third of Bergonia.  The western and northern sides of Bergonia receive the beneficent effect of the low pressure systems that reliable march eastward from North America, most predominately in winter.

The occurrence of dry seasons in Bergonia depends more particularly on whether mountains and land masses create "rain shadows," by blocking a region from a seasonal supply of rain.  The Spichelamos block Amota and other eastern regions from the moist westerlies of winter.  Thus, in Amota the dry season comes in winter.

In a more subtler pattern, the mid-Atlantic high pressure system generally insures that much of northern, central and eastern Berg see less rain in summer, though the difference is not often great.  This means that certain inland regions, along with the north and west coasts, have climates that veer toward the Mediterranean (Cs per the Koppen system).

Most of the world's great deserts exist on the same latitude as Bergonia-- 30° north or south.  There are indeed plenty of factors that militate toward a semiarid climate in Bergonia, but Bergonia is surrounded by water, so any and all winds that reach Bergonia inevitably carry some precipitable moisture.

How geography creates climate:

With a land mass extending between 25° to 35°N latitude, Bergonia lies at the divide between the temperate and subtropical climatic zones.  The latitudes that cross Bergonia also cross many of the world's great deserts, including Sahara, Arabian and Sonoran.  Also at this latitude around the world one finds semiarid plateaus, including the Colorado, Moroccan, Iranian & South African. 

On one hand the sub-tropical high pressure system floats over the Atlantic Ocean to the east of Bergonia.  Its movements and strengths are the main determinant of (a) weather in the southern half of Berg, and (b) summer weather overall.  On the other hand the low pressure systems originating from North America determine (a) weather in the northern half of Berg and (b) winter weather overall.  Generally Bergonia's summer weather comes from the east, and its winter weather comes from the west.  

How topography tempers climate:

Any generalizations that one can make about Bergonian weather and climate must be tempered by appreciation of just how mountainous this continental island really is.  Only in the southern part of Bergonia does the land lay flat.  

The mountainous and hilly topography produces extreme variations in temperature, rainfall and ecology.   Windward sides of mountain ranges get dependable rainfall, while leeward sides cast "rain shadows."  Extremely arid localities border  other areas that are quite moist and verdant.

Likewise, one can leave hot, dry lowlands, ascend quickly into cloud forest, and then emerge into Alpine meadow, all within ten or twenty miles.

Nowhere in the lowlands of Bergonia does one experience cold weather.  But with increased altitude, winter temperatures and nightly lows fall much lower.  The central plateau is for the most part above 1000 meters/3281 feet.  At that altitude, winter temperatures are generally 5 to 10° C (9-18° F) colder than sea level temperatures.  On the plateau and in the mountains winter nighttime temperatures can and do fall below freezing.  


The world's eco-regions, a valuable web resource maintained jointly by the National Geographic Society and the World Wildlife Org.

Current North Atlantic Weather

Current North Atlantic wind and pressure -- hit this link, then hit "Atlantic Surface Analysis."

"NMLOC annotated imagery" -- shows current showers and thunderstorms over the North Atlantic.

NMLOC climatology for the North Atlantic, including surface temperature and pressure.

Rainfall, cloud liquid water and water vapor for the world's oceans, including the North Atlantic.

Trans-Atlantic aviation weather page

Climate Prediction Center

Atlas of East Atlantic Rainfall

Western North Atlantic Satellite Images 

U.S. Navy Observatoryon-line data for sunrise & sunset, lunar phases, eclipses, positions of heavenly bodies, etc.


The Seasons in Bergonia:


Summer is overall the driest season, but in the east and southeast it is the wettest season.

In summer, the sub-tropical high pressure system hovers in the Atlantic centered around the Azores Islands, between Bergonia and the Iberian Peninsula, approximately on the 35th parallel.  This high pressure system generates the North-East Trade Winds.  From April to October these winds blow into eastern and southeastern Berg, strongest along the 25th degree latitude, which runs through the flat expanse of southern Bergonia.  Therefore, in the summer these winds blow strong across the south.  The winds blow hardest during the day, and can produce a dense stratum of cloud.  These clouds come inland, and when they strike the the eastern sides of mountains--  including the Spichelamos and the Palu Mountains-- where it condenses and creates gray shrouds of cloud, mist, rain and abundant subtropical forest.  

The highlands of the Ifuno plateau get rain in the form of abrupt thunderstorms which break through the wall of Spichelamo mountains in the east, and also which come up from the south.  The west and north of Bergonia are relatively dry in the summer, since the land mass shield them from the easterly & southerly influences.   Overall, the trade winds bring moisture sporadically and undependably from year to year, and week to week.  In the summers of some years, the high pressure system heavily showers almost all Bergonia   In other years, the high pressure system expands and spreads over Bergonia and creates drought.


This is generally Bergonia's rainiest season.  It is hurricane season.  The tropical storms form far to the southeast of Bergonia, and then usually track south and southwest of the island.  The ones that reach Bergonia usually from the southeast to the northwest, thus striking only the southwestern quarter of Bergonia.  Pueoi, Incuatati and Lampanira are the areas of Bergonia most oft and hardest hit by these terrible afflictions of natural power.  However some westward-tracking storms will suddenly turn north and crash directly into Bergonia.  At one time or another-- usually at least once a year-- every part of Bergonia is affected by tropical storm weather.  

Hurricanes have had their affect on history; in medieval times the power of the great state of Pueoi was in two days utterly destroyed by the force of a mighty hurricane, thus radically changing the balance of political and military power of the times, allowing the state of Tiericoatli to dominate all central Bergonia for over two hundred years.

In the absence of these powerful storms, Autumn tends to be a balmy time for all Bergonia, with shifting wind patterns and variable precipitation.  The west, center and north of Bergonia-- even the southeast-- all see a fair amount of rain.  


Now the Azores sub-tropical high pressure system moves to the south, closer to the northwest African coast, taking the Trade Winds further south as well, to where they become irrelevant.  Now polar air masses come off the North American continent, bringing cold moisture.  These currents are fueled by the Jet Stream, which also churn up moisture from the Gulf of Mexico and the American Sea.  Thus winter rains are heavy in the west and the north of Bergonia.  The winds carry the moisture well into the interior of Bergonia, providing all the Ifuno plateau with rains.  When the temperatures fall in the mountains and on the high plateau, the rains become snow and ice, although for the most part the winter climate is mild.  

It should be recalled that while Bergonia is on the same latitude as the southeastern USA, much of its territory contains mountain ranges over 5,000 feet in altitude, and elevated plateau land of 2,000 to 5,000 feet.  Because the high Spichelamos mountains run north and south, they serve as a wall to block the westerly winds.  Thus Amota to the east is quite dry in winter.  The westerlies very rarely benefit the southern part of Bergonia since typically they blow north of 29 degrees latitude.  However storms sometimes do blow over southern Bergonia, giving it some rainfall.  Moreover, the rains that benefit central Bergonia end up draining down southward-flowing rivers into the arid regions.

The winter low pressure systems usually track from west to east no further south than 32 degrees latitude.  This delimits only the northern third of the landmass, which is also its most mountainous part.   Therefore the northern mountains and hills are in the winter frequently very cold and fraught freezing, drizzling rain, often becoming snow in the high altitudes.  Because these winter westerlies are much moister than the easterlies of summer, the northwest is the moistest part of Bergonia.

When neither winter westerlies nor summer trades are blowing—which for much of the country is much of the time—the country enjoys the benign effects of the prevailing anticyclones.  These bring light winds, some clouds and moist air, but there is much sunshine.  


The winter patterns persist through March and into April.  The westerlies continue influencing weather in northern and western Bergonia well into May, keeping these regions moist, so that, as in winter, the northwest & north are the wettest parts of the country.   

The sub-tropical high pressure system expands again during this time.  At times it churns up moist air from the south and sends it northward over Bergonia where it yields thunderstorms and rain.  Also generated by the subtropical high, the Trade Winds begin to blow in May and come to prevail over the southeastern third of Bergonia, and rains begin to fall in the hills and uplands of Amota, a prelude to the wet summer.

All in all, this is a short season of transition between the winter and summer patterns, producing a time of variable weather, difficult to predict. 


The Climatic Zones:

Parsing the general weather patterns and the topographical variegations, meteorologists have often divided Bergonia into 21 climate zones, which pretty much translate into 21 biomes.  With the name of each region is given its Köppen classification.  

Köppen Codes:  

   C - coldest month under 64ºF, 

   A - coldest month over 64ºF, 

   BS - semiarid climate, BW - arid climate, 

   f - no dry season, 

   s - summer dry season, 

   w - winter dry season.

   M - mountain climate.

1.   Northern Mountain Temperate Rain Forests  -M (Cf)-  Cold and wet, the wettest region in Berg, with annual precipitation over 75 in.  Winter temps often fall to the 30s & below, producing snow.  Summer temps are sweet and 70s.  The higher regions have a true montane climate, with less rainfall.

2.   Northwest & North (Coninipati, Omaika & Bun-Vosuget)  -Caf-  Winter temps rang from 30-50 in the mountains. Hard storms come in winter, from October through April.  Rain falls throughout spring and summer, but not as much as winter.  50” plus rainfall a year.

3.   Northeast  (Pasiana)   -Cf or Cs-  Less rain than in the northwest, about 40” rainfall a year, with more in winter than in summer.  In winter the storms and fronts come reliably, one after another, from the west.  The summer skies are clear, except for sporadic quick thunderstorms.  This is the part of Bergonia most influenced by the Mid-Atlantic high pressure system in summer, causing something of a summer dry season, making the climate Mediterranean, at least to some degree.  

4.   Northern Rain Shadow Valleys   -Cf tending toward BW   This region includes several valley areas ringed by mountains that shield against the moist westerlies.  The weather patterns are largely the same as #2 but with less rainfall.  The summers are especially dry in these basins, but not so dry as to constitute a true Mediterranean dry season. 

5.   Western Lowlands  (Paiatri)  -Af- This includes a strip of coastline from the Clacupo Bays southward into coastal Lampanira.  The winter westerlies bring storms and rains to this land, but winter temperatures remain balmy, averaging 65 F.   Every few years bad tropical storms come in autumn.  45” rainfall a year.  The decrease of rain in summer is not enough to be called a dry season.   This is a green lush area. 

6.   West Ifuno   (Cuecha, Ciarepepina Hills in Paiatri)  -Cf-   40-50” rainfall a year.  Rain falls more in winter, but thunderstorms come every season.  Subtropical storms occasionally slam into and break up against the Western Ifuno.  However this region, like all upland central Bergonia, occasionally suffers from drought.  This elevated area is much cooler in the winter than the adjoining subtropical lowlands (see #5), with storms coming from the west bringing cold rain, sleet and occasionally snow. Winter temperatures average 40-50 F, nighttime lows often dipping below freezing.   This is a region of deciduous trees, with four seasons.  Summer temperatures often reach 80 F.  There is not much humidity.

7.   Central Ifuno  (Sefaieri)  -   inches a year.  This is just a gradient from region #6.  Because it is further inland than 6, it is a little drier and a little more susceptible to drought.  Because its altitude is a little higher than 6, it is a little colder. 

8.   East Ifuno  (Rarsecin, Kalicon, Zeinran) –Cf--  25’  inches of rainfall annually. From west to east across the central plateau the climate gets drier.  This is the plateau's eastern third where elevations are lower, with wide valleys and basins.  Winter temperatures still average 30-45 F.  Storms from the west bring cold rain, sleet and sometimes snow, but the higher elevations immediately to the west tend to absorb most of the moisture.  Summer temperatures often reach 80 F, and summers can be dry.  There is not much humidity.

9.   Burenshelu   (Kalicon)  -BSf to BWf-  12 inches.  Bushenrelu, in Kalicon state, is a basin ringed by mountains and hills, and the rain shadows cast by the higher elevations all around produce a semiarid climate .  Rainfall can vary drastically from year to year.  So can temperature fluctuate drastically within a year. 

10.   Spichelamo Uplands  (Foi-Pentana)  -M and BS-  Between 4000 and 6500  ft few broadleaves grow.  But arborescent heaths, pines, junipers abound, amidst highland heather.  Above 6500 ft no trees grow, but a white and yellow flowering broom, with a sweet scent, cover the slopes.  A region of mists and beautiful wildflowers.    

11.   Sunto   -BS and Af-  This is the southern side of the Sfentoromo mountains, which form the southern edge of the plateau land mass.  A place of hard sharp rocks and ridges, with winding valleys.  20-25” rainfall a year.  Winter temperatures hardly ever fall below 70. 

12.   Southwest Lowlands   -Af-   30” rainfall a year, fairly even throughout the year.  South Lampanira, plus Incuatati. This region gets a little from both the summer trades and the winter moisture from the west, as well as the mixed blessings of the subtropical storms of "hurricane season."  Late winter-early spring is the driest time here.   Temperatures are warm in winter and hot in summer.  There is sometimes high humidity. 

13.   Palu Mountains   -Af-  Cooler and wetter, hence lusher, than surrounding Zone 12. Incuatati

14.   Eastern Face of the Palu Mountains   -Aw-  The eastern slopes face the summers trades and force a great deal of rain, but get very little in the winter.  A few places get 60-70 inches a year.  These mountains are shrouded in rain forest.  Pueoi

15.  Sarcai, i.e. South-central Hills and Basins   -Aw to BS-     Rainfall is variable, ranging from 25” to 40” inches a year.  Forests alternate with open sections covered with grass, scrub, thorn trees.   

16.  West Beinton, the Southern Lowlands   -BS-   Pueoi, Sanranicali and most of Soleinia.  Rainfall in the southern lowlands decreases from west to east.  This flat region gets generally 20”-15” inches a year.   Grass, scrub, thorn trees cover the land, though trees grow along rivers and dense mangrove swamps line the coast. 

17.   Central Beinton, the Southeast Lowlands    -BW-   This semi-arid climate receives 12 inches + of rain a year.  Rain mostly comes in the summer half of the year, from April to October.

18.   Southeast (Serpei)  –BW to BS-  15-9 inches a year or less.  This is flat region is the driest part of the country, similar to North African climate and to the lowlands climate in the Canaries.  Here one finds introduced plants like date palm, orange trees, banana.  There is a Berg version of agave, and also several species of small cactus.  Also euphorbia, and several varieties of shrubby composite plants. 

19.   Amota coast  -BS-  Very similar to #15, but a little wetter.  12-20” rainfall, producing stretches of forest alternating with grasslands.  Warm all year around.  Trade winds bring moisture in summer for the hills and mountains.   Tends to be dry in winter.

20.   Southeast Highland Forests.  –Aw-  This region includes the east side of the Spichelamos and other ranges.  The mountains collect rainfall from trade wind cumulus clouds.  30-60”.  The contours between 2500-4000 feet are covered with dense subtropical forest.  Many laurels, broadleaves. 

21.   Northern Amota   -Aw and BS-  20-25” rainfall.  The forests extend to lower elevations.  Warm all year around.  Trade winds bring moisture in summer for the hills and mountains.   Tends to be dry in winter, but not as dry as Southern Amota.